Christaan Huygens LIGHT

Christaan Huygens blog

Bibliography: Works Cited

Christaan Huygens – Just Another Weblog. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <>.

“EasyBib: Your Bibliography / Works Cited List.” EasyBib: Free Bibliography Maker – MLA, APA, Chicago Citation Styles. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <>.

“Huygens Biography.” Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <>.

“Light Experiment – Refraction : Christiaan Huygens.” Christiaan Huygens. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <>.

“Model Photography 3.” Scale Model Guide. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <>.

Why I did these?

Light has always been something that was Christaan Huygens’s hobby. Christaan Huygens was also a regular swimmer and he swam every morning. The sun would rise in a certain way that would make him wonder why the water seems to bend. Of course this wasn’t all, Christaan Huygens enjoy going spear fishing with his children every weekend. He realised that his kids had a lot of trouble getting the fish because they are viewing it from above the water while he views it from in the water. That is when he decided to do his experiment.


Christaan Huygens’s was one the very famous of those who improved the telescope. The telescope was what inspired him to do this experiment. The experiment done is a little different from the telescope one.


About light

White light is made out of? Light is made out of the colours of a rainbow which can be seen by light passing through a rectangular prism.





My Experiment on Refraction

Aim: my aim in this experiment is to find out how much the angles change when passing through transparent objects with different colours.

Hypothesis: the first angle of bending will change when passing though transparent objects with different densities. The smaller the angle of incidence, the bigger the angle of bending will be.

Equipment: Plain Paper


Light Box

Semi-circular prism

Rectangular prism

Light Box Equipment

Triangular Prism


1. Plug in the light box to power it.

2. Put the required slits on the light box so it has one fine line of light coming out from it.

3. The place the plain paper flat on the ground so that the light is running on it.

4. Place the rectangular prism on the paper where the line of light is. Twist the rectangular prism and record changing the angle if incidence by 10 degrees every time.


Independent variable: The brightness of the light, the same equipment used, the same positioning each test

Dependent Variable: the angles that change when changing the position of the rectangular prism.


Angle Of Incidence Angle Of Reflection Angle Of Bending
0 0 0
10 9 1
20 13 7
30 20 10
40 29 11
50 32 18
60 36 24
70 40 30
80 45 35



In conclusion, the angle of reflection and the angle of bending adds up to the angle of incidence according to my results.





Experiment of Reflection:

Aim: To find the similarities of the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction.

Hypothesis: The angle of bending is 180 minus angle of incidence. Also, a curved mirror whether concave of convex will still have the same results as a strait mirror.

Equipment: Light box, plain paper, single slit for light box, protractor, mirror, concaved mirror and convex mirror.

Independent Variables: The angle and position of the light box and the light coming from the light box.

Dependents Variables: the angle of refraction

Method: 1. set everything up.

2. Point the light box at the flat mirror. Move the light 10 degrees to another side and repeat it at least 5 times.

3. Repeat this for the concave mirror

4. Repeat this for the convex mirror

Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Angle of bending
0 0 None
10 10 None
20 20 None
30 30 None
40 40 None
50 50 None
60 60 None
70 70 None
80 80 None


Conclusion: In conclusion, the curved mirrors had no difference compared to the strait mirrors. My hypothesis was wrong on the other test however. The angle would share the same angle if looked from above like a reflection.


Optics Experiment:

Aim: my aim is to find out how different lenses can affect light from a distance.

Hypothesis: i think that the convex lense will make the light dimmer and the light will amplify with the concave lens.

Equipment:Concave and convex lenses, candle, paper


1. put the candle close enough to the paper to make it visible in the dark

2. place the convex lence and record what happens

3. place the concave lenses and record what happens.


Dependent: the candle light

Independent: the result of the light after it comes out.

Results: the results that i got were not very clear.

The concave lenses spread the light out making it not very clear at the paper anymore

The convex lenses however seemed to do the same until i tried moving the distance of the candle. The light is spread out is the lenses and is joined back which will collide into one target. if the light is not stopped however, the light will appear like the concave lenses which was my first result.

Convex Lens Position (cm from screen) Candle Position (cm from screen) Height of flame (cm) Height of candle image (cm) Magnification (Image height divided by object height)






















In conclusion, my hypothesis wasn’t clear enough. i found this experiment really difficult because the lenses i had were crackedish. i gathered the results from a vary of people though.

Prac Pictures




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